Cells are like castles surrounded by walls. A wall without gates, however, would prevent commerce and trap the inhabitants inside. The cell has ingenious gates that control the flow of goods and services through its outer membrane under tight surveillance and quality control. This controlled flow, as opposed to passive diffusion or osmosis, is termed active transport. Depending on the type of import or export required, the cell uses a variety of mechanisms. It might wrap the cargo in clathrin proteins and send it through in a self-mending breach of the walls (endocytosis; 05/15/2005, 11/04/2005, bullet 7). It might use one of the specialized authenticating channels through the membrane (e.g., aquaporins 04/18/2002 and ion channels, 05/29/2002). It might export genetic material or proteins through one of the pumps, or secretion systems (10/11/2005, 11/10/2004). Or, it might check cargo through one of the varieties of self-operating ticketed turnstiles. A description of one of these gates excited awe in a commentary in PNAS.1 Robert M. Stroud summarized decades of work on a kind of lactose turnstile. Key researchers published their latest results in the current issue of the journal. They believe they have finally figured out how this molecule-sized machine works. It is a protein, 417 amino acids long, folded into a kind of rocking door in the membrane. For a lactose passenger to get through the membrane using this transporter, it has to pay the fare: a proton ticket must first be inserted into the active site. Then, the lactose molecule gets in and fastens its seat belt, so to speak, for the short but wild ride. The nanomachine undergoes a conformational change that seals off the outside and opens the door to the inside, where the passengers undock. Then, the gate automatically repositions itself for the next load. Called LacY, or lactose permease, this molecular machine operates with practically 100% efficiency: each proton ticket grants admittance to one and only one lactose passenger. LacY is one of a whole family of gates called the “Major Facilitator Superfamily” (MFS).2 “The mechanism most probably pertains to the many other transporters of the MFS that are found throughout all domains of life,” Stroud says. Another member of this family, for instance, is called GlpT. This machine works with a reverse-ticketing process; a phosphate outside the cell is exchanged for a glycerol phosphate inside. Stroud was palpably delighted with the elucidation of the mechanism of these intriguing nanomachines after so much research by so many scientists for so many years. Here’s what he said about the LacY device:The MFS of transporters can be run in reverse, such that outward movement of lactose, driven by reverse concentration gradient, can generate an H+ gradient across the membrane; LacY can work in either direction toward a coupled equilibrium. It is a beautiful example of energy transduction at the level of the membrane and is a near-perfect machine in the sense that the stoichiometry3 is always 1:1 without any leakage.Leakage would allow contraband through. Experimental inventory shows all goods accounted for, before and after. The protein undergoes “large global conformational changes to transport the cargo” that are reversible, providing “oscillation between structural states that become accessible alternately to one side or the other, which can therefore be coupled to other sources of energy.” Understanding how these machines work could lead to treatments for diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and lactose malabsorption, caused by malfunction of the gates. In addition, medical researchers may discover novel ways to co-opt the gates for special delivery of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs.1Robert M. Stroud, “Transmembrane transporters: An open and closed case,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0610349104, published online before print January 24, 2007.2Another superfamily of transporters, the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) family, is driven by ATP hydrolysis inside the cell.2Stoichiometry refers to the ratios of combining elements in a chemical reaction, from the Greek stoichea, “basic principles,” as used in Colossians 2:8.Wonderful, amazing, mind-boggling discoveries come from the investigation of design in nature. Stroud said nothing about how these machines arose by evolution; indeed, he said these mechanisms are “found throughout all domains of life.” Moreover, this particular 100%-efficient machine is made up of 417 amino acids. Our online book calculates the probability for a 400-amino-acid protein arising by chance as one in 10161. This unfathomably low probability rules out its formation by any lucky accident in trillions upon trillions of universes (ch. 7). The LacY protein machine cannot tolerate much error, either. One primary method the scientists use to learn about them is by replacing amino acids with the wrong ones, and watching how the machines break. From the top of the giraffe to the lowly crocus, molecular machines transduce life within a physical medium. This is no hocus, folkus. This is intelligent design coming into focus – at the locus of mind and matter, at the intersection of faith and reason. Let the NCSE run for cover, wailing, “Cloak us from the face of ID, for the facts emerging from biophysics provoke us to shame and despair.” Rejoice, O science, as the lens of molecular biology leads to a refocus on intelligent design.(Visited 30 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Brad AndersonEditor In Chief at ReadWrite *All Infographics thanks to Jefferson online education. An Information Technology (IT) department is charged with the responsibility of developing and managing a company’s technology assets.The Information Technology (IT) department includes so many differentiations that it can be mind-boggling.This blog will help you sort out what you know about IT — and what you don’t know about IT. It will also show you how and where to learn more — possibly you’ll want to update your own skills. (Check-out the great infographics shown below.)An IT department is charged with:Developing technology and apps for external and internal use.Managing the company’s email systems.Overseeing business intelligence.Managing and building enterprise resource planning (ERP) platforms.Setting up and troubleshooting networks.Backing up data and securing the information.Ensuring the security of all IT assets.Management of all equipment for the transmission or reception of data.Management of all computing equipment.Management of all network equipment and systems.A company’s IT department handles all equipment used for acquisition or storage. The daily issues and efforts facing — and solved — by an IT team cannot be overemphasized. This team manages all various technology assets that will be impacting productivity, and they are charged with fixing those issues.Ongoing change and challenges.There’s so much change happening across the world of technology. There is greater adoption of technologies that use artificial intelligence, machine learning which has been a game changer for IT departments. Blockchain has entered the IT picture, as well as new devices like IoT applications, chatbots, virtual reality, and augmented reality.Change breeds excitement among consumers and businesses alike, but there are challenges that companies face with this rapidly advancing technology environment. There is a push for digital transformation and expectations about security and experiences.These challenges include deciding what technology to invest in, integrate, or develop, especially with the speed at which technology is changing. There are also data backup problems and security risks. IT departments are also challenged by determining the best approach to scale new or existing technology platforms and tools as the business grows.One of the most significant issues, though, continues to be the lack of skilled talent that is necessary to develop and manage all the technology. The changing work dynamic has given rise to innovation and diversity which has created a borderless job pool.There are opportunities to work with talent all over the world on a remote basis. Now those trained in IT can work remotely from anywhere — and move to exciting locations, retaining the same IT position with the same company.IT hierarchy.With these ongoing changes and challenges, technology is introduced into every function and department in an organization. Plus, there are new IT roles, and the lines of responsibility have sometimes become blurred.Even with the blurred lines, there is a hierarchical status that can be identified within a typical IT department structure. Jefferson University developed an infographic that illustrates how an IT department now looks. Take a look at what each layer and role does; note the education required and the average salary.Top Level: IT Director.Top Level, IT DirectorThe IT Director is the top of the hierarchy and is also known as the Chief Information Officer (CIO) or Vice President, IT. In this leadership position, they are responsible for setting strategic direction in line with the company objective as well as overseeing all IT functions and managing the IT budget.This senior-level position typically is filled by someone with ten or more years of experience in IT. They have a bachelor’s degree in a technical area and can show a track record of management. Typically, the average salary is $114,839.Middle-Level IT Positions.There are numerous mid-level IT positions. These are still high-level officers that address specific functions within the department. A few of the tasks they are charged with is to oversee teams of people charged with handling specific special projects. Here are some of those vital middle-level roles:Information Security Manager.The Professional Information Technology (IT) Security ManagerThe Information Security Manager’s key responsibilities include managing networks and infrastructure security throughout the organization — this consists of the ability to try and stop breaches of any kind; including security attacks. Those in this position typically have a degree in computer science or security and have experience between five and nineteen years. The average salary is $109,348.Information Technology Project Manager.The Professional Information Technology (IT) Project Manager RolesThis position of IT Project Manager involves planning and managing all IT projects across the department and those that relate to other functions and departments. They oversee the budget and track resources to stay on target with the IT strategy. The role requires a bachelor’s degree or higher in IT or computer science as well as at least ten years of experience. The average salary is $85,808.Information Systems Manager.The Professional Information Technology Systems Manager’s RolesIn the role of Information Systems Manager — you’ll be focused on network and server operations. These IT professionals are in charge of any business continuity including detailed planning and understanding of disaster recovery.This manager ensures that all data and systems are backed up properly for minimal downtime and no data loss. Requirements include a bachelor’s degree — although a master’s degree is preferred — in IT or computer science. Ten or more years of experience is the average Systems Manager’s background. The average salary is $82,065.Entry-Level IT PositionsTo move into these higher level positions means starting your IT career at the entry level. There are many options at an entry level. To begin with, you want to find a company who will provide the experience necessary to advance your career in IT.IT Administrators and Analysts.The Professional IT Administrators and AnalystsIT Administrators and Analysts professionals encompass a number of positions, including systems and network administrators as well as systems analysts. Both the Administrators and the Analysts put in a lot of effort to maintain, upgrade, and troubleshoot all IT assets.These executive can handle any complication with hardware, software, and networks. While some positions provide entry into a job with just an associate degree, other positions may require a bachelor’s degree in computer science or IT. Required experience is anywhere from one to nine years with an average salary of $60,000.IT Engineer.The IT Engineer ProfessionalIT Engineer Professional’s have the responsibility of the hardware, software, and systems engineers. The IT Engineer’s primary focus is on providing technical support as well as setting up hardware, software, networks, and systems that a company uses.This position also averages between one and nine years of experience. The IT Engineer usually requires a bachelor’s degree in IT or computer science. The average salary is between $68,000 and $85,000. There are variations in this department and depending on the type of IT engineer, number of years of experience, and the company, the Engineer may also have other operations they handle.Researching an IT Career and options.Even entrepreneurs in new startups are finding that some personal ability in the IT field helps distinguish the best candidates for the job in their company’s.With the ongoing need for skilled IT professionals — this is a career field that will continue to grow. The demand for better trained IT professionals continues. To help fill these gaps, more educational, training, and certificate programs are essential.Appearing alongside the urgency for more IT specialists and experts is an affordable and convenient online IT degree program. This set of options in the online program offerings can propel an individual into a lucrative career with diverse choices and opportunity. How Data Analytics Can Save Lives Brad is the editor overseeing contributed content at ReadWrite.com. He previously worked as an editor at PayPal and Crunchbase. You can reach him at brad at readwrite.com. AI: How it’s Impacting Surveillance Data Storage Related Posts What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Follow the Puck Tags:#Demand for IT#Information technology (IT)#IT#IT challenges#IT Education#IT Operations#IT professionals#IT skills#IT Support#IT Training
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) leader R.R. Patil retained the crucial home portfolio while Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan kept the Urban Development and Housing departments with him as new portfolios were allocated after expansion of the Maharashtra cabinet.Deputy Chief Minister Ajit Pawar got Finance and Planning in addition to the Energy portfolio which he held in the erstwhile Ashok Chavan ministry.Chhagan Bhujbal, who had to make way for Pawar as deputy chief minister, was given Tourism in addition to the Public Works (excluding Public Undertakings) which he held earlier.Prithviraj Chavan expanded his eight-day-old cabinet inducting 29 new ministers, which includes six new faces, taking the total strength of the council of ministers to 40.Chavan effected a reshuffle in portfolios of Congress ministers.Narayan Rane was shifted from Revenue to Industries, Ports and Employment and Self-Employment. Balasaheb Thorat who held Agriculture in the Ashok Chavan ministry was given Revenue and Khar Lands. Radhakrishna Vikhe-Patil has been entrusted with the Agriculture and Marketing departments.Rajendra Darda who earlier held Industries has been given School Education.Patangrao Kadam retained Forests and got an additional department of Rehabilitation and Relief works, Earthquake rehabilitation. Shivajirao Moghe retained Social Justice, Welfare of Nomadic, de-notified tribes and other backward classes and de-addiction activities.Mohammed Arif Naseem Khan retained Textiles, Minorities Development and Aukaf. Harshvardhan Patil got Co-operation and Parliamentary Affairs.Suresh Shetty retained Public Health and Family welfare and Protocol while the Environment Ministry held by him earlier was given to newcomer Sanjay Deotale along with Cultural Affairs.advertisementVarsha Gaikwad, who was promoted to cabinet rank, has been given women and child development while another Congressman, who got elevated to cabinet rank Padmakar Valvi has been given Sports and Youth Welfare.Deputy Speaker in the Legislative Assembly Madhukarrao Chavan is the new cabinet minister for Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development and Fisheries.Nitin Raut has been given the portfolio of Employment Guarantee Scheme and Water conservation.NCP’s Jayant Patil has kept Rural Development while Ganesh Naik has retained state Excise and Non-Conventional Energy.Laxman Dhoble retains Water supply and Sanitation, Jaidutt Kshirsagar gets his old Public Works (Public Undertakings), Manohar Naik retained Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Vijaykumar Gavit kept Medical Education and Horticulture, Sunil Tatkare who held Finance in the last cabinet got Water Resources (Excluding Krishna Valley Irrigation Corporation), Ramraje Naik Nimbalkar retained Water Resources (Krishna Valley Irrigation Corporation).Babanrao Pachpute will continue as Tribal Development minister and Rajesh Tope will keep Higher and Technical Education portfolio.Hassan Mushrif retained Labour and got the additional department of Special Assistance.Anil Deshmukh has retained his cabinet portfolio of Food and Civil Supplies.Newly inducted minister of state Satej Patil, who is the Congress legislator from Kolhapur, will be R R Patil’s deputy as Minister of State for Home (Urban) and Home (Rural).Besides, he will also handle Rural Development and Food and Drugs Administration as minister of state.Rajendra Mulak, another new face in the ministry will be the Minister of State for Finance, Energy, Planning, Water Resources, Parliamentary Affairs and State Excise. Rajendra Gavit will be Minister of state for Tribal Development, Labour, Command Area Development and Horticulture.Dattatreya Sawant will be Minister of state for Medical Education, Higher and Technical education, Special Assistance and Non-Conventional Energy.Minister of State Ranjit Kamble was given Water Supply and Sanitation, Food and Civil Supplies, Consumer Protection, Tourism and Public Works, Bhaskar Jadhav has retained Urban Development,Forests, Ports, Khar Lands, Parliamentary Affairs, Sports and Youth Welfare, Ex-Servicemen’s welfare as well in addition to the law and judiciary department.Sachin Ahir has retained Housing, Slum Improvement, House repairs and reconstruction, urban land ceiling, Urban land ceiling, Industries, Mines, Social Justice, de-addiction activities, Environment, Welfare of nomadic, de-notified tribes and other backward classes.Prakash Solanke keeps Revenue, Rehabilitation and Relief work, Earthquake rehabilitation, co-operation, marketing and textiles. Fouziya Khan retained General Administration, Information and Public Relations, Protocol, School Education, Women and Child development, Public health, Minority development, cultural affairs.The chief minister has also kept General Administration, Information and Public Relations, Slum Improvement, House repairs and reconstruction, Urban Land Ceiling, Transport, Mines, Marathi Language, Law and Judiciary, Ex-servicemen’s Welfare.
To coincide with the NRL Women’s Rugby League National Championship, female NRL Touch Football players who are interested in being part of the Women’s Rugby League are invited to apply to join one of two exclusive touch-player teams for an exhibition match in front of NRL Women’s Rugby League selectors on 1st June!Maddie Studdon will work in consultation with the NSW Touch Association, and Chelsea Baker with Queensland Touch Football, to select 12 Touch players for the ‘Studdon Stars’ team and 12 for the ‘Baker Breakers’ team.These Touch players will be given tackle coaching before they go up against each other in a game of 9-a-side rugby league.This Touch players initiative helps give NRL Touch Football a meaningful role separate from the open-to-the-public Talent ID, and elevates the position of Touch players over those from other sports. To support this, the NRL will be assisting the 24 selected Touch players with travel, accommodation, insurance, uniforms and other costs associated with this initiative. Touch women will also take part in the NRL Women’s Rugby League Talent ID the day before, 31st May.Details of the event include the following:Date: 31st May–1st June 2018Ground Location: Owen Park Southport, QueenslandAccommodation: Sea World ResortTo fill in the Expression of Interest form, click here.
About the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say Barcelona coach Valverde: Slavia Prague an important gameby Carlos Volcano3 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveBarcelona coach Ernesto Valverde says meeting Slavia Prague is an important game for his team’s efforts to secure qualification to the next Champions League round.Barca meet Slavia Prague on Wednesday night.”We expect a great rival, as they have shown in these two Champions League games that they have already played, and remember they eliminated Sevilla last year,” said Valverde.”They attack with many players, show their face, run a lot and will force us to have a great match.”It’s a fundamental game for us and for them.”Things are starting to become clear and that’s why the three points are so important.”
Brighton: Australia all-rounder Ellyse Perry became the first cricketer of either gender to reach the rare milestone of scoring 1000 runs and taking 100 wickets in the T20 format. Perry (47 not out) and captain Meg Lanning (43 not out) stitched a match-winning partnership to guide Australia to a seven wicket win against England in the second T20 of the Women’s Ashes tour, here on Sunday. A four brought up the 1000-run milestone for the all-rounder, who had picked up her 100th wicket by dismissing England’s Nat Sciver in the World T20 final in November last year. Also Read – Puducherry on top after 8-wkt win over ChandigarhThe 28-year-old , who hit four boundaries and a six, was adjudged player of the match. “I guess it’s lovely, but I wasn’t aware of it. I actually think in T20 cricket at international level, we probably play it as much as the men, so I have played a pretty big volume of games now – over 100,” Perry was quoted as saying by ESPN Cricinfo. “So I suppose when you’ve played 100 games you might get close to it. That’s probably the only reason I’m there – because I’ve played a lot of games,” she added. Former Pakistani all-rounder Shahid Afridi (1416 runs and 98 wickets) currently stands closest to achieving the feat, while Bangladesh’s Shakib al Hasan, with 1471 runs and 88 wickets, stands next in line to join Perry.
KATOWICE, Poland — The Latest on climate talks taking place in Poland (all times local):10:50 a.m.Five international banks are pledging to use the billions at their disposal to steer clients away from businesses that emit large amounts of greenhouse gases.The banks, led by ING of the Netherlands, announced the plan Tuesday on the sidelines of the U.N. climate summit in Poland.The Katowice Commitment, named after the city hosting the two-week summit, is also backed by BBVA, Standard Chartered, BNP Paribas and Societe Generale.The banks, with a combined loan book of over 2.4 trillion euros ($2.72 trillion), say they want to support the Paris accord on curbing climate change.Measures include developing tools to ensure lending is aligned with emissions-reduction goals and financing low-emissions technologies.The banks say they won’t exclude any clients but instead “work with them on their transition.”___10:05 a.m.Negotiators gathered for the U.N. climate talks in Poland are getting down to the nitty-gritty part of the two-week meeting.Diplomats from almost 200 countries began holding a series of technical talks Tuesday aimed at finalizing the rules that define the 2015 Paris accord on curbing global warming.Decisions on crunch issues are expected to be left to ministers when they return to the southern Polish city of Katowice next week.U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres made a dramatic appeal to governments Monday to confront the threat of unchecked climate change.Scientists say manmade emissions of greenhouses gases must be reduced to net zero by 2050 to stop catastrophic warming this century.____Read more stories on climate issues by The Associated Press at https://www.apnews.com/ClimateThe Associated Press
FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – Fort St. John for Liquefied Natural Gas (FSJ for LNG) has recently released a letter looking at a year in review.Founder and Chairman, Alan Yu, says in the letter that FSJ for LNG is thankful for 2018 but is hoping for a better 2019 in regards to the current status of the LNG project. He notes that the LNG project was not just good for Fort St. John but for the National and Global economy as well.“When North East B.C. received good news in late 2018, it wasn’t just a positive turn of events for Fort St. John and the Peace Region. The final investment decision to proceed with the LNG Canada project heralds a project of national and global significance. A flat year for LNG investment worldwide was lifted by the October announcement. As recognition travels far and wide of fully how transformational Canada’s largest-ever private investment will be, nevertheless there are strong signs that the NDP-Green alliance in Victoria can barely contain its contempt for anything to do with natural gas and LNG.” Yu hopes that, in 2019, the Horgan Government does the right thing and test its reckless LNG policy with the electorate by calling an early election.“For those who understand both the economy and the environment, there is only one realistic hope for 2019: that the Horgan government do the right thing and test its reckless LNG policy with the electorate by calling an early election. The same voters who rejected Horgan’s crooked proportional representation referendum are highly likely to react the same way to his anti-climate climate plan: by saying no.”In closing, Yu points out that there is still a lot of work that FSJ for LNG has to do even with the LNG project coming to Fort St. John.“For those asking if the job of FSJ for LNG is now over, I hope this answers the question. We still have quite a job to do in 2019 which include voting somebody out in the coming federal election.”The full letter can be viewed below.
New Delhi: Citizens dwelling in the areas, where use of contaminated underground water is prominent to meet the demand of their basic needs, are on the verge of getting more prone to water pollution related disorders as experts raise the alarm the regarding the city’s underground resource- contaminated by lethal toxin such as arsenic, nitrates and fluorides in some parts of Delhi.Experts pointed that how much the city is overdrawing its groundwater. The over-exploitation was to the extent of 27 percent -that is, for every 100 litres that gets replenished, Delhiites draw out approx 127 litres. It’s based on analysis of groundwater use between 2011 and 2013, the latest year for which data is available. Also Read – After eight years, businessman arrested for kidnap & murderThe arsenic contamination is not widespread, but it may point to unacceptable ground pollution in the city, expert informed. “Arsenic contamination has been found in some parts of the Yamuna flood plains but it’s still a rare occurrence. Though arsenic pollution is considered geogenic (naturally occurring) in other parts of India, some papers have attributed arsenic contamination to fly ash from thermal power plants in Delhi,” said an official from Delhi University. Also Read – Two brothers held for snatchingsThe official further said that nitrate pollution in Delhi may be linked to sewage seepage, runoff from landfills into groundwater aquifers in different parts of the city. Fluoride contamination is restricted to the western part of Delhi where there is high groundwater salinity. Some studies have linked fluoride contamination to brick kiln activity while some say it is geogenic,” he said. Experts believe citizen are bound to meet their demand for waters from underground water in some part of national city, consequently, number of diseases such contamination, pneumonia, Rhodesia, gastroenteritis, typhoid, hepatitis and jaundice rises in a proportion in such specific zones. All three pollutants have severe health impacts. While arsenic is carcinogenic, high nitrate levels are known to cause methemoglobinemia, or “blue baby” disease, the official added. The expert further suggested that people residing in these areas should use treated water through UV and RO system, which maintains the magnesium, calcium and zinc type of essential minerals.