Effects of evolution on egg development time

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first_imgUsing a global data set on egg hatch times in zooplanktonic and nektonic ectothermsfrom marine waters, the combined effects of body size, temperature and life-history attributes ondevelopment times were examined. After correcting for mass and temperature the mean egg hatchtimes (from laying to hatching) were 20 times faster in some taxa than in others. Some of the divergencein hatch times can be accounted for by the disposition strategy of the eggs. Eggs that are protectedafter laying (e.g. carried by the female, or attached to a substrate or floating in clumpedmasses) take 3.3 times longer on average to develop to hatching than those spawned individually andfreely into the pelagic environment (i.e. ‘unprotected’), and this difference is independent of egg size.Given that unprotected eggs typically have higher mortality rates, it is proposed that evolution hasacted to shorten this vulnerable period. Not only do hatch times appear to diverge on the basis of eggprotection strategy, but also a similar degree of separation was apparent in cell cycle duration (i.e.time from 2 to 4 cell stage). These results reinforce the importance of egg disposition on developmentrate processes and their evolution.last_img read more

Organochlorine contaminant and retinoid levels in blubber of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) off northwestern Spain

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first_imgThe effect of age, sex, nutritive condition and organochlorine concentration on blubber retinoid concentrations was examined in 74 common dolphins incidentally caught off northwestern Spain. Age and blubber lipid content were strong determinants of the retinoid concentrations in males, while these variables did not account for the variation found in females. Retinoids were positively correlated with organochlorines in males and negatively in females. However, pollution levels were moderate and likely to be below threshold levels above that a toxicological response is to be expected. Thus, a cause–effect relationship between organochlorine and retinoid concentrations could not be properly established, and the observed correlation may be the result of an independent association of the two variables with age. Further research on the influence of the best predictor variables on retinoid dynamics is required to implement the use of retinoids as biomarkers of pollutant exposure in cetaceans.last_img read more

Mesospheric winds measured by MF radar with full correlation analysis: error properties and impacts on studies of wind variance

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first_imgThe mesosphere is one of the most difficult parts of the atmosphere to sample; it is too high for balloon measurements and too low for in situ satellites. Consequently, there is a reliance on remote sensing (either from the ground or from space) to diagnose this region. Ground-based radars have been used since the second half of the 20th century to probe the dynamics of the mesosphere; medium-frequency (MF) radars provide estimates of the horizontal wind fields and are still used to analyse tidal structures and planetary waves that modulate the meridional and zonal winds. The variance of the winds has traditionally been linked qualitatively to the occurrence of gravity waves. In this paper, the method of wind retrieval (full correlation analysis) employed by MF radars is considered with reference to two systems in Antarctica at different latitude (Halley at 76∘ S and Rothera at 67∘ S). It is shown that the width of the velocity distribution and occurrence of “outliers” is related to the measured levels of anisotropy in the received signal pattern. The magnitude of the error distribution, as represented by the wind variance, varies with both insolation levels and geomagnetic activity. Thus, it is demonstrated that for these two radars the influence of gravity waves may not be the primary mechanism that controls the overall variance.last_img read more

Mixing and transformation in a deep western boundary current: A case study

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first_imgWater-mass transformation by turbulent mixing is a key part of the deep-ocean overturning, as it drives the upwelling of dense waters formed at high latitudes. Here, we quantify this transformation and its underpinning processes in a small Southern Ocean basin: the Orkney Deep. Observations reveal a focussing of the transport in density space as a deep western boundary current (DWBC) flows through the region, associated with lightening and densification of the current’s denser and lighter layers, respectively. These transformations are driven by vigorous turbulent mixing. Comparing this transformation with measurements of the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation indicates that, within the DWBC, turbulence operates with a high mixing efficiency, characterized by a dissipation ratio of 0.6 to 1 that exceeds the common value of 0.2. This result is corroborated by estimates of the dissipation ratio from microstructure observations. The causes of the transformation are unravelled through a decomposition into contributions dependent on the gradients in density space of the: dianeutral mixing rate, isoneutral area, and stratification. The transformation is found to be primarily driven by strong turbulence acting on an abrupt transition from the weakly-stratified bottom boundary layer to well-stratified off-boundary waters. The reduced boundary-layer stratification is generated by a downslope Ekman flow associated with the DWBC’s flow along sloping topography, and is further regulated by submesoscale instabilities acting to re-stratify near-boundary waters. Our results provide observational evidence endorsing the importance of near-boundary mixing processes to deep-ocean overturning, and highlight the role of DWBCs as hot spots of dianeutral upwelling.last_img read more

ESPN: New York Knicks agree to trade Kristaps Porzingis to Dallas Mavericks

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first_img FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailMoses Kinnah/iStock(NEW YORK) — The New York Knicks and Dallas Mavericks are close to a trade that would send Kristaps Porzingis to Dallas and set up the Knicks for a major run at two star free agents this offseason.ESPN’s Adrian Wojnarowski says the Knicks would also send Tim Hardaway Jr. and Courtney Lee to Dallas, freeing up salary cap room for this offseason. The Mavericks would send back Dennis Smith Jr., DeAndre Jordan and Wesley Matthews.Dallas is working to acquire a first-round draft pick to include in the trade. They owe their own first-rounder to the Atlanta Hawks as part of the draft-night trade to acquire Luka Doncic.Sources told ESPN earlier on Thursday that Porzingis met with Knicks management to discuss concerns about the state of the franchise and his future. ESPN says Knicks officials were left with the impression that the 23-year-old would prefer to be traded.Porzingis tore his ACL last January and hasn’t played since. The fourth overall draft pick in 2015, Porzingis was averaging a career-high 22.7 points per game before the knee injury. The 10-40 Knicks are angling for one of the top picks in this summer’s draft. They decided against signing Porzingis to a rookie extension before this season, resulting in more salary cap room. That move, however, gave Porzingis the chance to be a restricted free agent this offseason.Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved. January 31, 2019 /Sports News – National ESPN: New York Knicks agree to trade Kristaps Porzingis to Dallas Mavericks Written bycenter_img Beau Lundlast_img read more

No surprise: USA tops Czechs 88-67 to open World Cup; Mitchell scores 16

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first_imgSeptember 1, 2019 /Sports News – Local No surprise: USA tops Czechs 88-67 to open World Cup; Mitchell scores 16 Tags: Donovan Mitchell/FIBA World Cup/USA Basketball FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailSHANGHAI (AP) — Donovan Mitchell scored 16 points, Harrison Barnes added 14 and the U.S. opened its quest for a third consecutive FIBA World Cup gold medal with an 88-67 victory over the Czech Republic on Sunday.Kemba Walker scored 13 points and Jayson Tatum finished with 10 for the Americans, who pulled away steadily throughout. Myles Turner had seven rebounds and a pair of blocked shots for the U.S.Tomas Satoransky, the former Washington forward who was traded to Chicago over the summer, led the Czechs with 17 points.While the Americans’ 78-game winning streak in international games with NBA players ended last month with a loss at Australia, their long winning streak in major tournaments continued. It’s now at 54 games, starting with the bronze-medal game of the 2006 world championships and continuing with gold-medal runs at the 2007 FIBA Americas, 2008 Olympics, 2010 world championships, 2012 Olympics, 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics.The Czechs scored the first four points of the fourth quarter to get within 66-52, but the Americans weren’t threatened. Walker made a 3-pointer to stop the mini-run, found Mitchell in the corner for another 3-pointer that made it 72-52 about a minute later and the outcome was academic from there.The Czechs had their highlight run early for a quick 11-7 lead, and the couple thousand of their fans in Shanghai — most of them wearing either white or blue team jerseys, with a few Wizards jerseys for Satoransky mixed in there — were roaring.It didn’t last long.After a 9-0 run by the Czechs, order was quickly restored. The Americans scored the next 10 points, kick-starting what became a 29-9 run in all, and led by as many as 16 before going into the half with a 43-29 edge.And it was defense that carried the Americans. Over a 10-minute stretch of the half, the Czechs went 4 for 20 with seven turnovers.TIP-INSCzech Republic: This was the first World Cup game for the Czechs since 1982, when the tournament was called the world championship and the country was still Czechoslovakia. That nation went 0-3 against the U.S. in past world championship matchups. … Jaromir Bohacik and Vojtech Hruban each scored 13.U.S.: The Americans started Walker, Mitchell, Tatum, Barnes and Turner. … Mason Plumlee, the only player back from the U.S. 2014 World Cup gold-medal team, was the only player not in U.S. coach Gregg Popovich’s initial 11-man rotation Sunday. Plumlee got his first action in the third quarter. … Walker made all five of his 2-point tries.FAST STARTERSThis is the 18th FIBA World Cup or world championship — and for the 18th consecutive time, the U.S. has started 1-0. All but four of those opening wins were by double digits; the closest ones were a 37-33 win over Chile in the inaugural event in 1950, an 81-73 victory over Argentina in 1959, a 77-75 win over Australia in 1978 and a 103-95 victory over Greece in 1990. The average margin of victory: 22.6 points.FASHION STATEMENTPopovich and the U.S. staff wore red polos — Popovich and assistant coach Steve Kerr went untucked — and blue pants. The Czech coaches all had on dark suits, unusual for polo-preferring FIBA coaches (Canada’s Nick Nurse went with a gray crewneck sweatshirt earlier Sunday), but ditched the dress shoes for sneakers.MORE TALENTIt’s the biggest World Cup ever — 32 teams — and that means there’s more NBA representation in the tournament than ever before as well. There are 54 NBA players from 17 countries in the World Cup. At the last World Cup in 2014, a 24-team event, there were 45 NBA players.UP NEXTCzech Republic: Faces Japan (0-1) on Tuesday in Shanghai.U.S.: Faces Turkey (1-0) on Tuesday in Shanghai. Written by Robert Lovelllast_img read more

Snow Volleyball remains No. 6 in NJCAA poll

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first_imgSeptember 18, 2019 /Sports News – Local Snow Volleyball remains No. 6 in NJCAA poll Tags: Central Wyoming/Ellee Anderson/Jeff Reynolds/Northeastern JC/Savannah Tanner/Snow College/Snow Volleyball Written by FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailEPHRAIM, Utah-After posting a 4-0 record at the Northeastern JC (Colo.) Invitational last weekend, including wins over No. 11 Iowa Western (3-1)  and No. 16 Northeastern (3-0), the Snow College women’s volleyball team remained at No. 6 for the second consecutive week in the NJCAA national rankings.This week’s ranking marks the 31st straight week the Badgers have been listed among the nation’s top-20 teams, and the 27th time during that stretch the team has been ranked No. 10 or higher.“I couldn’t be more pleased with the way our team showed up to play this past weekend,” Snow College head coach Jeff Reynolds said. “With playing two nationally ranked teams in one day, it was the toughest challenge we have faced this season. It was all about taking care of business and working together as a team to navigate the challenges associated with such a tough schedule. We had so many outstanding performances. It was fun to watch the team firing on all cylinders.”Freshman setter Ellee Anderson (Morgan, Utah, Morgan High School) leads the nation with 41 aces, while the team has posted 149 overall aces, which leads the nation. Sophomore libero/defensive specialist Savannah Tanner (Gilbert, Ariz., Gilbert High School) has recorded 24 aces on the season.Snow also ranks third nationally in total kills (771) and second in assists (712). Overall, the Badgers rank among the nation’s top-20 in 13 different statistical categories.Snow next travels to Riverton, Wyo., to take on Northwest College on Friday, Sept. 20, beginning at 11 a.m.The Badgers round out the day with a 1 p.m. contest against host Central Wyoming. The Rustlers have a Beehive-State flavor as they feature seven Utahns on the roster.The Badgers conclude the weekend with an 11 a.m. contest against Central Wyoming Saturday. Brad Jameslast_img read more

Morgan’s Girls Win 3-A State Tennis title; various Mid-Utah Radio Sports Network Athletes Excel

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first_img Written by FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailSALT LAKE CITY-Saturday, as 3-A girls state tennis ensued at the Liberty Park tennis courts of Salt Lake City, championships were decided in various singles and doubles events.The Morgan Trojans, posting an overall score of 15, captured their first girls tennis state title in school history. Juab and Manti tied for fourth place along with American Heritage with 8 points apiece. Richfield symmetrically placed seventh with seven points, tying with Grantsville. Gunnison Valley placed 10th with four points and Delta tied for 14th place with 1 point, with Maeser Prep and Saint Joseph.Manti junior Sadie Cox has advanced to the championship round in first singles as she bested Juab senior Jessie Bills, 4-6, 6-4, 6-4. Cox will face American Heritage senior Naomi Moot, a 6-1, 6-1 winner over Morgan freshman Katelyn Steel. Cox ultimately lost to Moot, 6-2, 6-1.In second singles, Morgan senior Ashley McMillan downed Manti’s Jolee Gillett, 6-4, 4-6, 6-2 to advance to the championship round. She meets Waterford senior Paige Smaligo who bested Judge senior Hannah Gose 6-1, 2-6, 6-4. McMillan won the state title in this event, 6-3, 6-0.Advancing to the championship round in third singles was Morgan senior Erin Bartol. The Trojans’ star improved to 9-1 on the season by besting Juab senior Olivia Foster 6-4, 6-4 in the semifinals. She will face Judge senior Aria Handlon who overpowered Grand junior Kyla Jackman 2-6, 6-2, 6-4. Bartol earned another individual title for the Trojans, prevailing 6-1, 6-3.In first doubles, Gunnison Valley’s seniors Kaylee Dyring and Berkley Peterson bested Judge Memorial’s Alyssa Gribben and Isabella Valles in straight sets, 6-0, 6-0. They advance to the championship round against Grantsville’s Brynlee Butler and Hailee Johnson who bested Waterford’s Isabel Hammond and Lauren Forkner 6-1, 6-0. Butler and Johnson took the title for Grantsville, netting the win, 4-6, 6-1, 6-0.In second doubles, Richfield junior Karsyn Harris and sophomore Aubrie Jorgensen prevailed 6-2, 6-4 over Waterford junior Siya Pandit and freshman Delaney Huefner to advance to the championship round. They fell in the title round, 6-3, 6-2 to Rowland Hall’s Caroline Applegate and Madeline Frazier. Tags: tennis October 12, 2019 /Sports News – Local Morgan’s Girls Win 3-A State Tennis title; various Mid-Utah Radio Sports Network Athletes Excel Brad Jameslast_img read more

Weber State Men’s Basketball Hosts San Diego Thursday

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first_img Tags: San Diego Men’s Basketball/Weber State Men’s Basketball Written by FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailOGDEN, Utah-Coming off of an 89-34 loss at Utah State last Friday, Weber State men’s basketball (0-1) seeks to right the ship by hosting the San Diego Toreros (1-2) of the West Coast Conference for their home opener at the Dee Events Center Thursday.The Wildcats are 51-6 (.895) all-time in home openers.Weber State head coach Randy Rahe, currently in his 15th season at the helm in Ogden, is 266-154 (.633) in leading the Wildcats’ program.In losing to the Aggies Friday, senior guard Jerrick Harding, out with a foot injury, was sorely missed. By virtue of their 34 points at Utah State, the Wildcats are tied with Syracuse for last place nationally.In Harding’s absence, sophomore Lithuanian national Donatas Kupsas posted 10 points and 6 rebounds.Defensively, the Wildcats rank 339th out of 347 teams nationally by giving up 89 points per contest.Against the Aggies, Ukrainian national Dima Zdor had two blocks to pace the Wildcats defensively.San Diego is coached by Sam Scholl who is 22-17 (.564) in his second season with the Toreros. San Diego snapped a 2-game losing streak by defeating Fresno State Tuesday 72-66. The Toreros’ losses on the season have been to UC Irvine (73-76) in the season opener and Long Beach State (62-74).The Toreros rank 240th nationally by scoring 69 points per game.Redshirt sophomore guard Joey Calcaterra posts 17.7 points per game as the Toreros’ leading scorer on the season thus far.Redshirt junior guard Braun Hartfield (13.3 points, 7 rebounds per game) is San Diego’s overall statistical leader. Hartfield also paces the Toreros’ defense with three blocks and 12 defensive rebounds. Junior forward James Jean-Marie averages a team-best 8.3 rebounds for San Diego.Defensively, San Diego gives up 72 points per game, tying them for 223rd nationally with Southern Utah, Cal State Bakersfield and Jacksonville.This is the sixth time in history the Wildcats and Toreros are meeting on the hardwood with Weber State leading the all-time series 3-2. November 13, 2019 /Sports News – Local Weber State Men’s Basketball Hosts San Diego Thursday Brad Jameslast_img read more

Pepperdine faces BYU in WCC finals

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first_imgMarch 8, 2021 /Sports News – Local Pepperdine faces BYU in WCC finals Written by FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailLAS VEGAS (AP)-Pepperdine (12-11, 8-6) vs. No. 2 seed Brigham Young (19-5, 10-3)West Coast Conference Tourney Championship, Orleans Arena, Paradise, Nevada; Monday, 10 p.m. MSTBOTTOM LINE: Pepperdine is set to face off against Brigham Young in the Championship of the WCC tournament. The teams split the regular season series at one win apiece. The teams last played on Jan. 27, when the Waves shot 42.4 percent from the field en route to a 76-73 victory.PLENTY OF EXPERIENCE: Each team has relied heavily on their seniors this year. Alex Barcello, Brandon Averette and Matt Haarms have combined to account for 47 percent of Brigham Young’s scoring this season and 50 percent of the team’s points over its last five games. For Pepperdine, Colbey Ross, Kessler Edwards and Jade’ Smith have combined to score 56 percent of the team’s points this season, including 59 percent of all Waves points over their last five.SPARKING THE OFFENSE: Ross has accounted for 63 percent of all Pepperdine field goals over the last three games. Ross has 21 field goals and 28 assists in those games.ASSIST DISTRIBUTION: The Cougars have recently used assists to create buckets more often than the Waves. Brigham Young has an assist on 52 of 84 field goals (61.9 percent) over its past three games while Pepperdine has assists on 42 of 78 field goals (53.8 percent) during its past three games.DID YOU KNOW: Brigham Young is rated second among WCC teams with an average of 78.6 points per game.center_img Brad Jameslast_img read more